Next Generation Research

Sustainability research of ecophysical systems.

We deal with questions that search for a more efficient and sustainable use of resources. In the research fields of transportation, energy and public health, we apply components from disruptive technologies and digitization for a more sustainable future. Therefore, we lay our focus on human-machine interaction.

Our Research fields


Strengthening public transport is an essential contribution to the mobility turnaround. Digitization enables a better understanding between supply and demand.

Technology Economics

Economic development also depends heavily on the regions` capacity for innovation. Individual technologies or the interaction of various technology players creates an environment in which disruptive technologies trigger structural changes.

Applied Artificial Intelligence

Due to the large amount of data from the areas of transportation and energy, we use artificial intelligence to analyze it. New use cases for artificial intelligence are emerging in the process.


Wind energy is the backbone of renewable energies in Europe. The high fluctuation of this energy source is one of the main problems to be solved. Accordingly, complementary technologies and smart power grids are promising approaches.

Public Health

The combination of methods from the transport sector and the inclusion of digital technologies enable new applications in the field of public health. In this context, it is possible to take a look at the micro level and to model regions in a targeted manner.


Renewable energies lead to strong fluctuations on the markets. Accordingly, these have to be analyzed and understood more precisely in order to supply the economy with energy and to maintain its functionality.


The behavior of individuals and firms in decisions about the allocation of scarce resources is studied in economic models. Thus, microeconomics forms the theoretical basis of the other research fields.

Economic Policy and Management

Transport, energy and public health are among the biggest infrastructure issues for a state. Accordingly, our research is closely related to the economic policy of a state or the management of a company. Therefore, we develop recommendations for these actors according to our models and data.

Our latest tweets

We keep ourself busy with many thingshere are a few examples

Our Research Projects

  • Transport Hubs in
    Rural Areas

    In times of passenger transport transformation, nodes that enable inter- and multimodality in the transport sector are becoming particularly important. New forms of mobility in the context of public transport are thus strongly emphasized on these starting and transfer points. Hence, these nodes need to be considered separately but at the same time in the overall spatial context of the region.

    Transport Systems in
    Rural Areas

    Innovation processes in mobility are spreading rapidly in urban areas. On the contrary, rural areas lag behind due to low demand and cumbersome revenue generation. Innovative solutions offer a chance to bring benefits of modern mobility into low density areas and altering current business models.

    Public Transport in
    Ageing Societies

    The proportion of the population aged 60 and older in western countries is growing steadily. The mobility of older people is therefore of increasing importance, as this rapid growth can lead to serious traffic problems if, with increasing age, the deficites in driving skills become more pronounced. Up to now, public transport availability in rural regions is often centered around school hours and offers only reduced services throughout the rest of the day. Hence, these regions are facing new challenges and must adapt their structures accordingly.

  • Wind Structures

    The most important energy source from the field of renewable energies in Europe is wind. Currently, wind can still be interpreted as a stochastic variable. Accordingly, we improve our understanding of wind structures with mathematical and statistical tools.

    Energy Economics

    Wind energy represents an important future economic sector due to the increasing interest in renewable energy worldwide. For this reason, wind turbine performance prediction is an important task for economists. Therefore, the field of energy economics is in a state of flux and offers a variety of new research questions.

    Energy Trade

    Wind energy is gaining an ever-increasing share in the electricity mix of many countries. Our goal is to estimate the wholesale price and thus provide planning certainty in the markets and reduce the impact of wind energy fluctuation. For these analyses, we treat offshore and onshore wind energy as variables to be considered and their impact on the European Energy Exchange. Using these models, we can identify various parameters and how they affect wholesale electricity prices.

  • Copenhagenize Cities

    Currently, a gradual change in the perspective of cities can be observed worldwide due to global warming and the shortage of raw materials. With the signing of the Kyoto Protocol and the associated goal of the international community to slow global warming to a maximum of 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels, the world has committed itself to taking effective steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, the bicycle is gaining ground as a sustainable, CO2-neutral means of transport. because of its potential to replace motorized transport and contribute to climate protection and quality of life.

    Cost Benefit in Transportation

    Interdisciplinarity is an essential key to the effectiveness of innovations and technologies. Accordingly, the aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of transport systems from an economic point of view and thereby generate recommendations. Digital approaches enable new options for an optimal interaction of these disciplines.

    Transport in Metropolitan Areas

    Transportation in the megacities has a multitude of problems. One of the core problems is the inadequate public transportation system which leads to a multitude of other problems such as extreme traffic congestion, long commute times, air pollution or even fatal traffic accidents. The external cost of these consequences is a high damage to the economic development of these cities. With the continuous growth of these cities, this research area is continuously gaining importance to provide for a more sustainable world.

  • Transport Behaviour, Gamification and Nudging

    One of the biggest challenges in the mobility transition is human behavior. This is influenced by many different factors and must be considered accordingly for special requirements. This makes it easier to derive more efficient and better economic models and policy implications for these requirements. Our goal here is to enable more sustainable transport behavior. Extrinsic incentives and monetary incentives could be a solution for this. Therefore, such concepts have to be identified and tested in experiments.

    Agent Based Simulations and Policy Recommendations for Epidemics in the Global South

    The People´s Republic of China was the first region to be affected by a global pandemic outbreak in January 2020. COVID-19 spread quickly around the globe, presenting the international community with new dimensions of economic, social and moral problems. Countries responded by making macroscopic decisions for their nations. The individual regions were not equipped with the appropriate applications to be able to act regionally. Accordingly, micro-management decision support tools could be developed by us to advise the regional decision makers.

    New Business Concepts for Public Transport

    On-going digitization has already produced numerous disruptive innovations, with many more to follow. The transportation sector is particularly affected by these innovations, whether through drones, autonomous vehicles or the digitization of public transport. New business models must be developed and adapted accordingly.

  • Demand Responsive Transport Systems in rural Areas (EcoBus)

    Demographic change is prevalent in rural regions against the backdrop of an aging society as well as out-migration due to a lack of employment opportunities and poor infrastructure. Given a fixed budget for transport operators, declining demand leads to high operating costs per transported customer. This makes the provision of public transport economically inefficient and people in rural areas become highly dependent on private motorized transport. Therefore, public transport needs to be transformed through digitization measures. For this purpose, the DRT system EcoBus was developed for rural areas as a door-to-door system.

    Socio-Economic Optimisation of Public Transport Systems in Africa

    While urbanization and population growth are expanding city boundaries, public transportation systems are required to accompany this process in order to provide accessible public transport. The results of this study provide a basis for further analyses of public transport systems around the world to determine deficiencies in parameters and service design. It also contributes to the toolkits for the assessment of public transport services within a city and provides guidelines for political processes.

    Corporate Mobility Management

    The scope and tools of modern corporate mobility management concepts go far beyond pure business travel. Changing mobility needs and digital solutions enable intelligent networking and efficient coordination of different mobility needs and affect other business areas such as corporate social responsibility. Smart and tailored mobility management can create cost-efficient, sustainable and attractive offers for employees and the region.

  • Simulations for future Transport Systems

    Disruptive developments in automated driving systems, new drive concepts and digital mobility are shaping the way people in rural and urban areas. In combination with these technical potentials, novel mobility concepts can improve people`s everyday mobility of people in terms of both cost efficiency and sustainability. In addition, the challenges of demographic change and urbanization can be and negative developments can be mitigated.

    AI for Aerospace Technology

    A major driver of climate change is flying, so we are striving to make this more sustainable. in doing so, we are focusing on researching the effects of operating conditions on aircraft engines to improve the timely planning of maintenance events and optimize them. To do this, we use machine learning mainly with time series of aircraft engines and numerical weather prediction models. The research aims to improve fuel efficiency and increase component longevity. This should enable plant operators and service providers to reduce costs and environmental footprint.

    Smart SH

    In a comparison of the German states, Schleswig-Holstein scores below average on indicators such as gross domestic product per employee and research and development spending. One possible remedy against such scenarios is to provide impetus for technological innovations that have an impact on both economic growth and industrial development.

  • Door to Door DRT System

    The most flexible DRT system is a door-to-door service. This offers a high degree of flexibility and thus ensures a comprehensive understanding of the user`s routes. Accordingly, such a system can also achieve a high degree of customer satisfaction, as there is no need to change. Depending on the system, the pooling rate and the resulting detours can be problematic.

    Demand Responsive Transport Systems in Urban Areas (Flexa)

    The most flexible DRT system is a door-to-door service. This offers a high degree of flexibility and thus ensures a comprehensive understanding of the users routes. Accordingly, such a system can also achieve a high degree of customer satisfaction, as there is no need to change. Depending on the system the pooling rate and the resulting detours can be problematic.

  • Our most recent publications

    Sörensen, L., & Schlüter, J. (2021). How do contract types and incentives influence driver behavior?− An analysis of the Kigali bus network. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8(1), 1-11.


    Wacker, B., & Schlüter, J. C. (2021). Pipeline for Annual Averaged Wind Power Output Generation Prediction of Wind Turbines Based on Large Wind Speed Data Sets and Power Curve Data. MethodsX, 8, 101499.


    Kersting, M., Bossert, A., Sörensen, L., Wacker, B., & Schlüter, J. C. (2021). Predicting effectiveness of countermeasures during the COVID-19 outbreak in South Africa using agent-based simulation. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8(1), 1-15.


  • Our most recent publications

    Schlüter, J. C., Simons, J., Sörensen, L., & Coetzee, J. (2021). Optimierung von Minibustaxiverkehren in Südafrika unter Einbindung von Geoinformationssystemen, Standort 45, 96–101.


    Schlüter, J., Bossert, A., Rössy, P., & Kersting, M. (2021). Impact assessment of autonomous demand responsive transport as a link between urban and rural areas. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 39, 100613.


    Minnich, A., Rau, H. A., & Schlüter, J. C. (2021). The effects of gift vouchers and environmental certificates on the demand for a collective DRT system. Transportation, 1-32.


  • Our most recent publications

    Knierim, L., & Schlüter, J. C. (2021). The attitude of potentially less mobile people towards demand responsive transport in a rural area in central Germany. Journal of Transport Geography, 96, 103202.


    Kersting, M., Kallbach, F., & Schlüter, J. C. (2021). For the young and old alike–An analysis of the determinants of seniors’ satisfaction with the true door-to-door DRT system EcoBus in rural Germany. Journal of Transport Geography, 96, 103173.


    Hahn, A., Frühling, W., & Schlüter, J. (2021). Using open-source high resolution remote sensing data to determine the access to buildings in the context of passenger transport. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (pp. EGU21-9408).

  • Our most recent publications

    Jokinen, J.-P., Sörensen, L., Schlüter, J. C. (2021), Public transport in low density areas. In: Vickerman, Roger (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Transportation. vol. 1, pp. 589-595. UK: Elsevier Ltd.


    Bossert, A., Kersting, M., Timme, M., Schröder, M., Feki, A., Coetzee, J., & Schlüter, J. (2021). Limited containment options of COVID-19 outbreak revealed by regional agent-based simulations for South Africa. F1000Research, 10(98), 98.


    Eisen, M., Poddig M., Seebass J. V., Hackelberg, F., Wacker, B. & Schlüter, J. C. (2021) Rising Inequality and Spatial Social Segregation due to Urbanization and Increasing Housing Prices, Research Square.


  • Our most recent publications

    Wacker, B., & Schlüter, J. C. (2021). A cubic nonlinear population growth model for single species: theory, an explicit–implicit solution algorithm and applications. Advances in Difference Equations, 2021(1), 1-29.


    Schlüter, J. C., Sörensen, L., Bossert, A., Kersting, M., Staab, W., & Wacker, B. (2021). Anticipating the impact of COVID19 and comorbidities on the South African healthcare system by agent-based simulations. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-9.


    Schröder, M., Bossert, A., Kersting, M., Aeffner, S., Coetzee, J., Timme, M., & Schlüter, J. (2021). COVID-19 in South Africa: outbreak despite interventions. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-9.


  • Our most recent publications

    Simons, J., Wacker, B., Bossert, A., & Schlüter, J. C. (2020), Verkehrsökonomische Analyse von Minibustaxiverkehren in der Metropolregion Kapstadt und der Minenstadt Rustenburg in Südafrika, Zeitschrift für Verkehrswissenschaft, 91, 1-27.

    Kersting, M., Matthies, E., Lahner, J., & Schlüter, J. (2020). A socioeconomic analysis of commuting professionals. Transportation, 1-32.


    Sörensen, L., Bossert, A., Jokinen, J. P., & Schlüter, J. (2020). How much flexibility does rural public transport need?–Implications from a fully flexible DRT system. Transport Policy, 100, 5-20.


  • Our most recent publications

    Grunicke, C., Schlüter, J. C., & Jokinen, J.-P. (2020). Evaluation methods and governance practices of new flexible passenger transport projects. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 100575.


    Wacker, B., & Schlüter, J. C. (2020). An age- and sex-structured SIR model: Theory and an explicit-implicit numerical solution algorithm. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 17, 5752-5801.


    Wacker, B., & Schlüter, J. C. (2020). Time-continuous and time-discrete SIR models revisited: theory and applications. Advances in Difference Equations, 2020: 556.


  • Our most recent publications

    Wacker, B., Seebaß, J. V., & Schlüter, J. C. (2020). A modular framework for estimating annual averaged power output generation of wind turbines. Energy Conversion and Management, 221: 113149.


    Lichter, J., Hosius, E., Wacker, B., & Schlüter, J. C. (2020). Der Einfluss von Offshore-Windenergie auf die EEX-Strompreise. Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft, 44, 85-99.


    Nyga, A., Minnich, A., & Schlüter, J. C. (2020). The effects of susceptibility, eco-friendliness and dependence on the Consumers’ Willingness to pay for a door-to-door DRT system. Transportation Research Part A, 132, 540-558.


  • Our most recent publications

    Schlüter, J. C., Frewer, M., Sörensen, L., & Coetzee, J. (2020). A stochastic prediction of minibus taxi driver behaviour in South Africa. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 7: 13.


    Harbering, M., & Schlüter, J. C. (2020). Determinants of transport mode choice in metropolitan areas the case of the metropolitan area of the Valley of Mexico. Journal of Transport Geography, 87: 102766.


    Matthies, E., Preuß, S., Lahner, J., & Schlüter, J. C. (2019). Alternative Bedienformen im ÖPNV. Implikationen für den Planungsprozess. Zeitschrift für Verkehrswissenschaft, 90, 21-47.

  • Our most recent publications

    Kern, L., Seebaß, J. V., & Schlüter, J. C. (2019). Das Potenzial von vertikalen Windenergieanlagen im Kontext wachsender Flächennutzungskonflikte und Akzeptanzprobleme der Windenergie. Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft, 43, 289-302.


    Lahner, J., Schlüter, J. C., & Sörensen, L. (2019). Digitalisierung im ÖPNV: vom Rufbus zu einem intelligenten nachfrageorientierten System im ländlichen Raum. Neues Archiv für Niedersachsen, II/2019, 178-191.


    Avermann, N., & Schlüter, J. C. (2019). Determinants of customer satisfaction with a true door-to-door DRT service in rural Germany. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 32: 100420.


  • Our most recent publications

    Gebauer, A., Fingerhut, J., Lahner, J., & Schlüter, J. C. (2019). Verkehrsanbindung von Berufsschülern. Standort, 43(1), 9-19.


we think further than scienceand transfer our thoughts into sustainable structures

Our Research Transfer Projects

  • Transfer Project 1:

    Status: Ongoing

    Transfer Project 2:
    Medical Technology

    Status: Ongoing

    Transfer Project 3:
    Wind Energy

    Status: Preparation

  • Transfer Project 4:

    Status: Before Take Off

    Transfer Project 5:

    Status: Pre-Studies

    Transfer Project 6:

    Status: Pre-Studies

  • Transfer Project 7:

    Status: Preparation

    Transfer Project 8:

    Status: Pre-Studies

    Transfer Project 9:
    Real Estate

    Status: Pre-Studies

  • Transfer Project 10:

    Status: Pre-Studies

We have grown knowledge and passion in what we doand therefore share it with
young future talents

Seminar in
Energy Economics

by Jan Schlüter
2016 to 2020
@ Uni Göttingen

Seminar in
Transport Economics

by Jan Schlüter
since 2016
@ Uni Göttingen

R-Project Seminar

by Jan Schlüter
2016 to 2020
@ Uni Göttingen

Topics in Descriptive Statistics

by Jan Schlüter
since 2016
@ Uni Göttingen

Statistics and Operations Research

by Jan Schlüter
2016 to 2020
@ Uni Göttingen

Seminar in Operations Research

by Jan Schlüter
since 2016
@ Uni Göttingen

Quantitative methods in Social Science

by Jan Schlüter
@ HAWK Göttingen

Computer Science 1

by Armin Hahn
& Michael Schäfer
& Christoph Brügge
2018 – 2019
@ HAWK Göttingen


by Michael Schäfer
& Christoph Brügge
2018 – 2019
@ HAWK Göttingen

Computer Science 2

by Armin Hahn
& Michael Schäfer
& Christoph Brügge
@ HAWK Göttingen

Seminar: Introduction in MATSim

by Andreas Bossert
& Moritz Kersting
@ Uni Göttingen

Consumer Psychology

by Jan Schlüter
& Leif Sörensen
& Johann Seebass
since 2019
@ PFH Göttingen

Basic Research Lab Course in Complex Dynamics

by Jan Schlüter
since 2021
@ TU Dresden

Advanced Research Lab Course in Complex Dynamics

by Jan Schlüter
since 2021
@ TU Dresden

Digital Urban Modelling – Agent-based Simulations

by Andreas Bossert
& Moritz Kersting
since 2021
@ TU Dresden

Our Developed Software

  • Driver Client for a DRT System

    The software guides and informs the driver about routes and bookings and other information..

    Snapping Software

    Software which calculates optimized pick-up and drop-off locations.

    Middleware for a DRT System

    A server-side software that receives incoming requests, processes them, forwards them to the algorithm and distributes the result.

  • iOS- and Android-App for a DRT System

    Smartphone app for a DRT system.

    Callcenter Software

    Platform-independent application for a callcenter.

    Fleet management Software

    Management software for the operation and monitoring of a DRT system.

  • Digital Twin Capetown

    Digital Twin Buenos Aires

    Digital Twin Göttingen

  • Digital Twin Bremerhaven

    AddModCopula package

    Within the package, we propose anadditive regression model to describe the respective relationship between the copula data and external information.

    Pipeline for Wind Power Output Generation

    Pipeline for annual averaged wind power output generation prediction of wind turbines. This method relies heavily on large wind speed data sets, arbitrary power curve modeling techniques and arbitrary wind speed distributions.

  • NMBM Simulation Setup

    Agent-based epidemic simulations are used to depict the effects of policy measures on the further course of the Covid-19 epidemic

We're a team that adores what we do

...and never forget our esteemed Alumni