Research Field:



Strengthening public transport is an essential contribution to the mobility turnaround. Digitization enables a better understanding between supply and demand.

Related Research Projects

  • Transport Hubs in
    Rural Areas

    In times of passenger transport transformation, nodes that enable inter- and multimodality in the transport sector are becoming particularly important. New forms of mobility in the context of public transport are thus strongly emphasized on these starting and transfer points. Hence, these nodes need to be considered separately but at the same time in the overall spatial context of the region.

    Transport Systems in
    Rural Areas

    Innovation processes in mobility are spreading rapidly in urban areas. On the contrary, rural areas lag behind due to low demand and cumbersome revenue generation. Innovative solutions offer a chance to bring benefits of modern mobility into low density areas and altering current business models.

    Public Transport in
    Ageing Societies

    The proportion of the population aged 60 and older in western countries is growing steadily. The mobility of older people is therefore of increasing importance, as this rapid growth can lead to serious traffic problems if, with increasing age, the deficites in driving skills become more pronounced. Up to now, public transport availability in rural regions is often centered around school hours and offers only reduced services throughout the rest of the day. Hence, these regions are facing new challenges and must adapt their structures accordingly.

  • Copenhagenize Cities

    Currently, a gradual change in the perspective of cities can be observed worldwide due to global warming and the shortage of raw materials. With the signing of the Kyoto Protocol and the associated goal of the international community to slow global warming to a maximum of 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels, the world has committed itself to taking effective steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, the bicycle is gaining ground as a sustainable, CO2-neutral means of transport. because of its potential to replace motorized transport and contribute to climate protection and quality of life.

    Cost Benefit in Transportation

    Interdisciplinarity is an essential key to the effectiveness of innovations and technologies. Accordingly, the aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of transport systems from an economic point of view and thereby generate recommendations. Digital approaches enable new options for an optimal interaction of these disciplines.

    Transport in Metropolitan Areas

    Transportation in the megacities has a multitude of problems. One of the core problems is the inadequate public transportation system which leads to a multitude of other problems such as extreme traffic congestion, long commute times, air pollution or even fatal traffic accidents. The external cost of these consequences is a high damage to the economic development of these cities. With the continuous growth of these cities, this research area is continuously gaining importance to provide for a more sustainable world.

  • Transport Behaviour, Gamification and Nudging

    One of the biggest challenges in the mobility transition is human behavior. This is influenced by many different factors and must be considered accordingly for special requirements. This makes it easier to derive more efficient and better economic models and policy implications for these requirements. Our goal here is to enable more sustainable transport behavior. Extrinsic incentives and monetary incentives could be a solution for this. Therefore, such concepts have to be identified and tested in experiments.

    Agent Based Simulations and Policy Recommandations for Epidemics in the Global South

    The People´s Republic of China was the first region to be affected by a global pandemic outbreak in January 2020. COVID-19 spread quickly around the globe, presenting the international community with new dimensions of economic, social and moral problems. Countries responded by making macroscopic decisions for their nations. The individual regions were not equipped with the appropriate applications to be able to act regionally. Accordingly, micro-management decision support tools could be developed by us to advise the regional decision makers.

    New Business Concepts for Public Transport

    On-going digitization has already produced numerous disruptive innovations, with many more to follow. The transportation sector is particularly affected by these innovations, whether through drones, autonomous vehicles or the digitization of public transport. New business models must be developed and adapted accordingly.

  • Demand Responsive Transport Systems in rural Areas

    Demographic change is prevalent in rural regions against the backdrop of an aging society as well as out-migration due to a lack of employment opportunities and poor infrastructure. Given a fixed budget for transport operators, declining demand leads to high operating costs per transported customer. This makes the provision of public transport economically inefficient and people in rural areas become highly dependent on private motorized transport. Therefore, public transport needs to be transformed through digitization measures. For this purpose, the DRT system EcoBus was developed for rural areas as a door-to-door system.

    Socio-Economic Optimisation of Public Transport Systems in Africa

    While urbanization and population growth are expanding city boundaries, public transportation systems are required to accompany this process in order to provide accessible public transport. The results of this study provide a basis for further analyses of public transport systems around the world to determine deficiencies in parameters and service design. It also contributes to the toolkits for the assessment of public transport services within a city and provides guidelines for political processes.

    Corporate Mobility Management

  • Simulations for future Transport Systems

    Disruptive developments in automated driving systems, new drive concepts and digital mobility are shaping the way people in rural and urban areas. In combination with these technical potentials, novel mobility concepts can improve people`s everyday mobility of people in terms of both cost efficiency and sustainability. In addition, the challenges of demographic change and urbanization can be and negative developments can be mitigated.

    Door to Door DRT System

    The most flexible DRT system is a door-to-door service. This offers a high degree of flexibility and thus ensures a comprehensive understanding of the user`s routes. Accordingly, such a system can also achieve a high degree of customer satisfaction, as there is no need to change. Depending on the system, the pooling rate and the resulting detours can be problematic.

    Demand Responsive Transport Systems in Urban Areas

    The most flexible DRT system is a door-to-door service. This offers a high degree of flexibility and thus ensures a comprehensive understanding of the users routes. Accordingly, such a system can also achieve a high degree of customer satisfaction, as there is no need to change. Depending on the system the pooling rate and the resulting detours can be problematic.

Related Transfer Projects

  • Transfer Project 1:

    Status: Ongoing

    Transfer Project 4:

    Status: Preparation

    Transfer Project 6:

    Status: Pre-Studies

  • Transfer Project 7:

    Status: Preparation

Related Publications


Avermann, N., & Schlüter, J. C. (2019). Determinants of customer satisfaction with a true door-to-door DRT service in rural Germany. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 32: 100420. doi:10.1016/j.rtbm.2019.100420

Gebauer, A., Fingerhut, J., Lahner, J., & Schlüter, J. C. (2019). Verkehrsanbindung von Berufsschülern. Standort, 43(1), 9-19.

Grunicke, C., Schlüter, J. C., & Jokinen, J.-P. (2020). Evaluation methods and governance practices of new flexible passenger transport projects. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 100575. doi:10.1016/j.rtbm.2020.100575

Harbering, M., & Schlüter, J. C. (2020). Determinants of transport mode choice in metropolitan areas the case of the metropolitan area of the Valley of Mexico. Journal of Transport Geography, 87: 102766. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102766

Kersting, M., Matthies, E., Lahner, J., & Schlüter, J. (2020). A socioeconomic analysis of commuting professionals. Transportation, 1-32.

Lahner, J., Schlüter, J. C., & Sörensen, L. (2019). Digitalisierung im ÖPNV: vom Rufbus zu einem intelligenten nachfrageorientierten System im ländlichen Raum. Neues Archiv für Niedersachsen, II/2019, 178-191. doi:10.5771/9783529096112-178

Matthies, E., Preuß, S., Lahner, J., & Schlüter, J. C. (2019). Alternative Bedienformen im ÖPNV. Implikationen für den Planungsprozess. Zeitschrift für Verkehrswissenschaft, 90, 21-47.

Nyga, A., Minnich, A., & Schlüter, J. C. (2020). The effects of susceptibility, eco-friendliness and dependence on the Consumers’ Willingness to pay for a door-to-door DRT system. Transportation Research Part A, 132, 540-558. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2019.11.030

Schlüter, J. C., Frewer, M., Sörensen, L., & Coetzee, J. (2020). A stochastic prediction of minibus taxi driver behaviour in South Africa. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 7: 13. doi:10.1057/s41599-020-0508-2

Simons, J., Wacker, B., Bossert, A., & Schlüter, J. C., Verkehrsökonomische Analyse von Minibustaxiverkehren in der Metropolregion Kapstadt und der Minenstadt Rustenburg in Südafrika, Zeitschrift für Verkehrswissenschaft, 91, 1-27.

Sörensen, L., Bossert, A., Jokinen, J. P., & Schlüter, J. (2020). How much flexibility does rural public transport need?–Implications from a fully flexible DRT system. Transport Policy, 100, 5-20. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2020.09.005

In Press

Schlüter, J. C., Simons, J., Sörensen, L., & Coetzee, J. (2021). Optimierung von Minibustaxiverkehren in Südafrika unter Einbindung von Geoinformationssystemen, Standort 45, 96–101.

Schlüter, J., Bossert, A., Rössy, P., & Kersting, M. (2021). Impact assessment of autonomous demand responsive transport as a link between urban and rural areas. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 39, 100613.


Bossert, A., von Hausegger, K., Schlüter, J. C. (06/2020), Behavioural analytics for smart cities: The influence of weather on cycle superhighway utilisation in cities with seasonal inhabitant effects. submitted@Cities

Herbst, H., Minnich, A., Herminghaus, S., Kneib, T., Wacker, B., & Schlüter, J. C. (03/2020), A Behavioral Economic Perspective on Demand Responsive Transportation, Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives. submitted@Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Hesse, H., Kühnel, S., Bossert, A., and Schlüter, J. C., Die Sicherheit des Minibustaxiverkehrs in Südafrika. submitted@Soziale welt

Kersting, M., Kallbach, F., & Schlüter, J. C. (2021). For the young and old alike–An analysis of the determinants of seniors’ satisfaction with the true door-to-door DRT system EcoBus in rural Germany. Journal of Transport Geography, 96, 103173.

Knierim, L., & Schlüter, J. C. (2021). The attitude of potentially less mobile people towards demand responsive transport in a rural area in central Germany. Journal of Transport Geography, 96, 103202. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2021.103202

Minnich, A., Rau, H., Schlüter, J. C. (2020), The effects of financial and non-financial incentives on the usage of adoor-to-door DRT system: Evidence from a field experiment in rural Germany. Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege) Discussion Papers No. 394

Nyga, A., Schlüter, J. C.. How Public is Public Transport? -Does Public Transport Qualify As a Public Good? submitted@Journal of Economic Perspectives

Schöller, G., Sörensen, L. & Schlüter, J. C. (06/2020). Socially-optimal public transport operations in a developing country.
submitted@Transport Policy

Sörensen, L., & Schlüter, J. (2021). How do contract types and incentives influence driver behavior?− An analysis of the Kigali bus network. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8(1), 1-11. doi:10.1057/s41599-021-00896-6

v. Rosenberg, V. H. I., Sörensen, L., & Schlüter, J. C., The Role of the Paratransit Sector in the Public Transport Systems of Latin American Cities

Working Paper

Grunicke, C., Schlüter, J. C., & Jokinen, J. P. (2020). Implementation of a cost-benefit analysis of Demand-Responsive Transport with a Multi-Agent Transport Simulation. arXiv preprint arXiv:2011.12869.

Books & Technical Reports

Technischer Bericht Dassel

Technical Report 1: Transportanalyse zur Implementierung eines intelligenten Demand Responsive Transport Systems im ländlichen Raum

Technical Report 2: Transportanalyse zur Implementierung eines intelligenten Demand Responsive Transport Systems im ländlichen Raum

Jokinen, J.-P., Sörensen, L., Schlüter, J. C. (2021), Public transport in low density areas. In: Vickerman, Roger (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Transportation. vol. 1, pp. 589-595. UK: Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-102671-7.10628-1

Persons Involved